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Egg Yolk Peritonitis

Other Names: Egg Yolk Coelomitis

Egg yolk peritonitis, also referred to as egg-related coelomitis, is a general term used to describe peritonitis associated with the presence of yolk material, usually caused by conditions such as ectopic ovulation (the follicle ruptures and the egg does not enter normally in the oviduct) or oviductal disease.
Egg yolk peritonitis chickens graphic
When yolk is present free within the intestinal peritoneal cavity, it can cause a massive localized inflammatory reaction, resulting in accumulation of free fluid, blood, and inflammatory cells. Additionally, since yolk material is an excellent growth medium for bacteria, it can lead to a secondary bacterial infection. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacteria isolated from affected birds. Other common types of bacterial organisms that have been isolated include Klebsiella sp., Proteous sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus sp.,.

In cases of egg yolk peritonitis, it's important to determine the underlying cause, since it often occurs as a secondary or concurrent event to several reproductive conditions, including:

Signs of Egg Yolk Peritonitis in Hens


Hens with egg yolk peritonitis will usually stop laying as many eggs, if they continue laying any at all. The eggs that they do lay are often consistently soft-shelled, thin-shelled, or have some deformity.
Signs of egg yolk peritonitis in Hens
Hens with egg yolk peritonitis will be less active, and may spend an excessive amount of time sitting in the nestbox, not because they're laying an egg. For this reason, these hens may sometimes be mistaken for being "broody", which is a maternal behavior exhibited by hens who want to hatch a clutch of eggs. In the advanced stages, there may be palpable abdominal distension, indicating the presence of fluid inside the bird's abdomen (also known as ascites). These hens will often position themselves in a "penguin-like" stance in an attempt to help relieve some of the discomfort. They may also have difficulty breathing.

Diagnosis of Egg Yolk Peritonitis


Egg yolk peritonitis is diagnosed through a combination of history, clinical signs, physical exam, and a variety of diagnostic imaging equipment and laboratory tests. Tests that can be beneficial to help in the diagnosis of egg yolk peritonitis in chickens include:
  • Physical Exam: Palpation of the abdomen can sometimes reveal the presence of soft-shelled or firm shelled eggs in the oviduct, ectopic eggs free within the abdomen, ovarian masses, or displacement of the ventriculus.
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC): A blood test, called a complete blood count (CBC), measures the white blood cell count. A high white blood cell count usually signals inflammation or infection. A blood culture can help to identify the bacteria causing the infection or inflammation. Antibiotic sensitivity testing helps to identify the best antibiotic to use to treat the infection.
  • Abdominal Fluid Cytology & Culture: The fluid recovered from an abdominocentesis (a procedure your veterinarian can perform using a needle, to remove any abdominal fluid present) is sent to a diagnostic laboratory for further testing.
  • Radiography and ultrasound: May help in revealing the presence of accumulated egg material and space-occupying lesions.

Treatment of Egg Yolk Peritonitis


Treatment of egg yolk peritonitis varies depending on the cause and severity of clinical signs in the bird. Mild cases where no secondary bacterial infection is involved may only require supportive care. In other cases, when an infection is present, usually treatment requires a combination of analgesics, anti-inflammatories, broad-spectrum antibiotics, aggressive supportive care, and other therapies aimed at reducing egg laying activity. Surgery may sometimes be needed, to remove excessive accumulations in egg material.

If peritonitis is persistent or recurrent, additional diagnostics such as laparoscopy and surgical exploratory should be considered, as well as more aggressive treatment measures such as salpingohysterectomy.

Clinical Signs

History of laying misshappen or soft (thin)/shell-less eggs
Not laying eggs
Depression/lethargy
Reduced or lack of appetite
Excessive nestbox sitting
Yolk colored droppings
Weight loss
"Penguin-like" stance
Abdominal enlargement (due to fluid)
Delayed molt

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Ultrasound
  • Radiographs
  • Exploratory surgery

Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Impacted oviduct, colibacillosis and egg yolk peritonitis in a Chicken A 1-year-old golden comet hen was presented because of an enlarged abdomen, cessation in egg production, difficulty in ambulating, and difficulty roosting. Results of radiographs and ultrasound examination revealed a radiolucent oval area in the right coelom and fluid with flocculent debris throughout the coelomic cavity. Escherichia coli and Proteus species were cultured from a sample of the fluid. Antibiotic therapy was temporarily beneficial, but the problem persisted and the hen was euthanatized. At necropsy, the oviduct was impacted with yellow caseous material. The diagnosis was colibacillosis and egg yolk peritonitis, which may have originated from an impacted oviduct. Ref

Treatment

NameSummary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own chicken "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Broad spectrum antibiotics
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Fluid removal
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (e.g., leuprolide acetate injections or deslorelin implants)Used to stop egg laying.
Homeopathy1 tablet Hepar Sulph and 1 tablet Bryonia crushed. Add to an egg cup of water, and use 2-3 drops 3 times dailyBritish Hen Welfare Trust
SurgerySalpingohysterectomy (spaying) may be necessary.

Support

Prevention

Stop egg laying through use of hormone implants.

Prognosis

Poor unless the hen is promptly taken to a veterinarian.

Scientific References

Age Range

It often occurs in adult egg laying hens

Risk Factors

  • Commercial egg laying chickens
  • Stress
  • Lowered immune system
  • Overweight hens
  • Existing infection or intestinal parasite load
  • Ovarian tumor
  • Oviduct impaction

Case Stories