Staphylococcus spp

Bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus, referred to as Staphylococci, are Gram-positive bacteria that belong to the normal bacterial microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of healthy humans and animals alike. Including poultry. However, if staphylococci gain entry into the body, they can cause opportunistic infections, which occur frequently in poultry.

S. aureus is the most pathogenic Staphylococcus species, and is the species most frequently isolated from birds diagnosed with staphylococcosis. It has been most commonly isolated from pododermatitis lesions (bumblefoot), bones and joints (arthritis, osteomyelitis, chondronecrosis), and tendon sheaths (synovitis), and less commonly, skin (gangrenous dermatitis, scabby hip syndrome), heart (endocarditis) and liver (green liver–osteomyelitis syndrome). Septicemia can develop following skin or mucous membrane infections. Other less common Staphylococcus species reported to cause disease in poultry include:
  • S. agnetis: Has been associated with bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and septicemia in broilers.
  • S. auricularis, S. capitis, S. carnosus, S. chromogenes, S. gallinarum, S. lugdunensis, and S. schleiferi: Have been associated with systemic infections in broilers, laying hens, turkeys, and waterfowl.
  • S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus: Has been associated with hock joint arthritis, systemic infections, and scabby hip syndrome in broilers, laying hens, waterfowl, and turkeys.
  • S. epidermidis: Has been associated with chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO), systemic infections, and scabby hip syndrome in broilers, laying hens, and waterfowl.
  • S. hominis: Has been associated with chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) and systemic infections in broilers.
  • S. hyicus: Has been associated with systemic infections, fibrinopurulent blepharitis and conjunctivitis, mixed infections with fowl pox, stifle joint osteomyelitis, acantholytic folliculitis and epidermitis, and pododermatitis in broilers, laying hens, and turkeys.
  • S. intermedius, S. lentus, S. sciur, and S. warneri: Has been associated with scabby hip syndrome and systemic infections in broilers, laying hens, and turkeys, and waterfowl.
  • S. saprophyticus and S . xylosus: Have been associated with chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) and systemic infections in broilers, laying hens, and turkeys.
  • S. simulans: Has been associated with endocarditis, scabby hip syndrome, and systemic infections in broilers, laying hens, waterfowl, and turkeys.
Incubation period: 2-3 days

Disinfectants: Staphylococcus are susceptible to 70% ethanol, clorhexidine, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 0.25% benzalkonium chloride, and formaldehyde.

Taxonomy

  • Order: Bacillales
  • Family: Staphylococcaceae
  • Genus: Staphylococcus

Hosts

  • humans
  • animals