Salpingitis or inflammation of the oviduct, is one of the most frequent causes of death in commercial egg laying hens. Although its associated with a wide variety of infectious pathogens, it can also develop secondary to other reproductive diseases affecting the ovary, such as a neoplasia (tumor) present, cystic ovarian disease, and oophoritis. The bacterial organism most commonly found is Escherichia coli
, and less frequently, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Salmonella
spp. and Pasteurella multocida
. Salpingitis can be septic or nonseptic, where the nonseptic form is often a chronic condition. Onset of salpingitis often leads to egg yolk peritonitis
and an oviduct impaction
Clinical signs observed in hens with salpingitis differ depending on whether the condition is septic or nonseptic. When it occurs in its septic form the bird gives the typical 'sick bird look', where nonseptic signs of illness are a bit more vague. The signs seen in both forms are nonspecific and associated with a number of different reproductive conditions affecting hens. These include:
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Ruffled or fluffed feathers
- Abnormal or malformed eggs - irregularly shaped, soft shelled, or blood-streaked.
- On occasion there may be cloacal discharge present
Varying degrees of abdominal distension is usually present, especially if there is an association with an impacted oviduct or cystic ovarian changes.