Salpingitis is inflammation of the oviduct. Almost all cases are caused by a bacterial infection, usually Escherichia coli
, but sometimes Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Salmonella
spp. and Pasteurella multocida
can affect other organ systems simultaneously. Salpingitis can occur in acute or chronic form. Common causes of salpingitis include other reproductive system conditions such as egg binding, oviduct impaction, and egg-related peritonitis.
What is the Oviduct?
The female reproductive tract is frequently referred to as the oviduct in birds.
The oviduct is a twisted muscular tube-like organ which is made up of five major sections--the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell gland, and vagina. It is where the ovary releases matured ovums (the action of this release is called ovulation). Once released, the ovum travels inside the oviduct and starts to form the other components that make up an egg, such as the albumen (egg white), and egg shell. The total time it takes the hen's body to turn the ovum into an egg, and lay that egg is about 25 to 26 hours. This entire process happens in the oviduct.
Symptoms of Salpingitis
Hens with salpingitis often don't show any easily recognizable signs that can distinguish it from other reproductive disorders. Varying degrees of abdominal distension is usually present, especially if there is an association with an impacted oviduct or cystic ovarian changes. Hens may have a history of laying soft-shelled eggs or persistently infertile eggs (associated with breeding).
Diagnosis of Salpingitis
Early diagnosis and treatment is important to improve the chances of survival in hens with Salpingitis. Salpingitis is diagnosed through radiographs, ultrasound, laparoscopy, or laparotomy.