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|If tissue is still frozen||Rapidly rewarm in a warm (body temperature, 104-108 °F (40-42°C)) water bath.|
|DO NOT use direct heat (such as a heat lamp, hair dryer, heating pads, etc,) to rewarm the affected area.|
DO NOT rub, massage, shake, or otherwise apply any physical force to frostbitten tissues, as it can cause more damage to the affected area.
DO NOT disturb any blisters or skin that has blackened.
DO NOT let chickens walk on frostbitten feet or toes, as walking will increase the damage. Restrict movement through the use of a sling-type restraint, splinting, or wrapping.
DO NOT trim the blackened areas. These areas actually protect the remaining, living tissue. Removing the blackened areas can expose the living tissue underneath and increase the risk of infection.
DO NOT put the chicken back outside. If there is potential for refreezing of an area, do not attempt to thaw, as thawing followed by refreezing can cause even more extensive damage to the area. Place the chicken in supportive care, in a warm environment.
|Supportive care||Once the affected tissue is warmed up, gentle wrap the affected area (not too tightly!), if multiple toes are involved, make sure to wrap each toe separately. After wrapping, place the chicken in a quiet, comfortable recovery area that does does not run the risk of re-exposing them to the cold. Make an appointment to take them to see your veterinarian. Depending on the severity they may require hospitalization. In most cases, pain medication is indicated since frostbite is extremely painful. Prophylactic antibiotics may be indicated to help prevent secondary infections.|
|Streptokinase treatment and rapid rewarming||Resulted in reduced tissue damage and was most beneficial when given within 12 h of freezing and was still effective even when treatment was delayed up to 48 h|
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