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Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by infection with Cryptosporidium spp, usually C. baileyi. The disease usually manifests as a respiratory infection (tracheitis, pneumonia, or air sacculitis) but sometimes as an enteric disease.

Transmission


Transmission occurs through the ingestion of Cryptosporidium oocysts that are passed in the feces of an infected host. Cryptosporidium does not reproduce outside of a host, and ooysts are infectious immediately upon being excreted in feces. Infection results from the ingestion or inhalation of sporulated oocysts in contaminated water, feed, bedding, and dust. Cryptosporidium infect a wide range of host species, including humans, other mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The infectious dose is low. Chickens don't need to ingest very many to cause an infection in a healthy bird. Infected birds will shed Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces for up to 60 days after they have recovered.

Oocysts are capable of surviving outside the chicken for long periods of time (often greater than 6 months duration) in cool, moist environments, especially water sources.

Clinical Signs

Diarrhea
Paleness
Weight loss
Ruffled feathers
Sneezing
Nasal and eye discharge
Swollen sinuses
Difficulty breathing
Coughing
Extending neck
Reluctance to move
Increased respiratory sounds (rales)
Undigested food in droppings
Depression

Diagnosis

  • Cytology
  • Fecal test
  • ELISA
  • Acid-fast staining
  • Direct fluorescent antibody [DFA]

Treatment

NameSummary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own chicken "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Paramomycin100 mg/kg administered orally every 12 hoursK Marx

Support

Prevention

  • Good sanitary practices
  • Place water sources higher up to help prevent feces from contaminating the water source.
  • Prevent birds flying overhead from contaminating water sources with their feces.

Scientific References

Risk Factors

  • Keeping birds in a dirty, unsanitary environment.
  • Ingestion of untreated or fecal contaminated drinking water.