Cryptosporidium parvum are protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. It occurs worldwide and is ubiquitous in the environment, with a complex lifecycle with sexual and asexual cycles taking place in a single host.
They are highly contagious, and transmitted through the fecal-oral route, direct contact with infected humans or animals, contaminated food or water and aerosols.
DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Susceptible to nitazoxanide.
SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: C. parvum is susceptible to high concentration (> 6%) of hydrogen peroxide and ethylene oxide, ozone. It is resistant to low concentration of hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, phenolic, quaternary ammonium compound, 2% glutaraldehyde, ortho-phtalaldehyde, and 70% ethanol.
PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: It is inactivated by freezing (less than -20 degrees Celsius for 24 hours and UV light.
SURVIVAL IN THE ENVIRONMENT: It can survive for 6 months at 20°C in the environment.