Blue Wing Disease, Anemia Dermatitis Syndrome, Hemorrhagic Aplastic Anemia Syndrome
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) is a highly contagious, acute anemic condition that affects young chicks (under 4-5 weeks of age) worldwide. CIA is caused by the chicken anemia virus (CAV), a non-enveloped single stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Gyrovirus
under the family Circoviridae
The most significant aspect of CIA is that it impairs the chicken's immune system which results in:
There are reports of increased severity of clinical signs associated with CIAV, following infectious bronchitis infection
, due to immunosuppression effects. Adult chickens can also become infected with CIAV, but they usually do not develop any clinical signs of disease, however they do act as a source of infection for younger birds. Affected chicks show signs of severe anemia, which consist of paleness, weakness, depression, ruffled feathers, loss of appetite, poor weight gain, and subcutaneous and muscular internal bleeding. Chicks with CIA also show increased susceptibility to secondary infections.
CIAV is transmitted to chickens vertically through breeder flocks to their offspring, contamination of specific pathogen free (SPF) eggs, and horizontally through infected organic material or contaminated equipment.