|5-20 g/kg of diet
|Alleviated adverse impacts due to high ambient temperature at biochemical level including impaired enzymatic antioxidant system, elevated stress hormone and lipid profile.
|S Mirzaie et al., 2017
|1% of diet
|Dietary Spirulina supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen showed a linear increase in Spirulina supplementation. Cecal Lactobacillus count linearly increased and excreta ammonia gas emission linearly decreased, as dietary Spirulina supplementation increased.
|J Park et al., 2018
|5-10 g/kg of diet
|Improved the growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and intestinal microbial population in broiler chickens.
|E Alwaleed et al., 2021
|15-20 g/L in drinking water
|increased tolerance in broilers exposed to chronic heat stress conditions. Spirulina at 20 g/L enhanced vaccinal immunity to NDV, minimized hepato-cellular damage and reduced mortality in broilers compared to control counterparts. Spirulina at 15 g/L resulted in lowered tendency of oxidative burst of erythrocytes, lipid indices.
|G Kolluri et al., 2022
|0.25 - 1 g/kg of diet
|increased the thyroxin hormones without affecting serum glucose and leptin levels. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values decreased in broilers fed SPC0.250 and SPC1 diets. Triglycerides (TG) decreased in SPC0.25-, SPC0.75-, and SPC1-treated groups. Though antioxidant enzyme activities (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) increased linearly and quadratically, malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased linearly by increasing the SPC level. There was no effect on serum proinflammatory cytokines IL1 levels. Immunolabelling index of caspase-3 and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) were downregulated by SPC supplementation. The intestinal histomorphology is represented by increased villus height, the villus height to crypt depth ratio, and numbers of goblet cells in different sections of the small intestine.
|A Omar et al., 2022
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