Plasmodium spp are mosquito-transmitted blood parasites which cause avian malaria in domestic and wild birds worldwide. There are thirty-five different Plasmodium species. The species most pathogenic to domestic poultry include P. gallinaceum, P. juxtanucleare, and P. durae. Wild birds and zoo birds are usually infected with P. relictum. Mosquitoes from the Culex, Culiseta or Aedes species can serve as hosts.
- Saif, Y. M Diseases of poultry. John Wiley & Sons (2009)