Philophthalmus gralli, otherwise known as the Oriental Avian Eye Fluke, is a type of zoonotic trematode which invades the conjunctival sac of the chicken's eye. Either around the lachrymal glands or under/on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The presence of adult flukes in the orbit causes conjunctivitis, keratitis, watery discharge, and mild edema.
Hosts: P. gralli are found mainly in avian hosts worldwide. However, human cases have been reported.
- Saif, Y. M Diseases of poultry. John Wiley & Sons (2009)