Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming, non-motile bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family. It is an opportunistic pathogen which resides as part of the normal microbiota in the upper respiratory (nasal and tracheal passages), lower reproductive tract (cloaca and vagina), and digestive tract (rectum) of healthy birds.
Disease manifestations: G. anatis can cause reproductive and respiratory infections in chickens.
Hosts: G. anatis infects a wide range of avian species, including chickens, ducks, guinea fowls, turkeys, pigeons, peacocks, partridges, geese, and pheasants. It has also been reported in mammals such as pigs, sheep, humans, cattle, horses, and rabbits.
Transmission: Transmission occurs horizontally via the respiratory tract or during mating. It can also be transmitted vertically through the egg.