Butorphanol (brand names Stadol®, Torbugesic®, and Torbutrol®) is a powerful pain medication and cough suppressant. It is mainly reserved for use during and following surgery. It is one of the most frequently prescribed analgesic drugs used for acute pain management in birds. The drug works by blocking certain nerve stimulation that causes pain. Butorphanol is a controlled Class IV narcotic medication; therefore, it requires a prescription from a veterinarian.
Caution: This drug should not be given to birds with potential liver disease, head trauma, kidney disease, older birds, or nervous system dysfunction.