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Cryptosporidiosis

Other Names: Avian Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidiosis is the name of the disease caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium. It manifests as either a respiratory or gastrointestinal disease, depending on the site of infection.

There are many species of Cryptosporidium that infect a wide range of animal species, including humans. The following Cryptosporidium species have been reported to infect chickens:
  • Cryptosporidium baileyi: Infects the Bursa of Fabricius, conjunctiva, kidneys, respiratory tract, cloaca, or rectum. Found worldwide and in a wide range of bird species.
  • Cryptosporidium meleagridis: Infects the small and large intestines. Found in Columbiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes worldwide.
  • Cryptosporidium galli: Infects the proventriculus. Affects chickens in Asia, Europe, Oceania, and South America. Found in Bucerotiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Psittaciformes, and Phoenicopteriformes.
  • Cryptosporidium andersoni: Affects chickens and other Galliformes in Europe.
  • Cryptosporidium parvum: Infects the small intestine or caecum. Found in Accipitriformes, Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes in Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

How Chickens get Cryptosporidiosis


Chickens become infected by ingesting Cryptosporidium oocysts excreted in the feces and surrounding environment, from an infected host. The host doesn't need to be a chicken. Many other species of birds can be infected hosts. Oocysts are capable of surviving outside their host for long periods of time (often greater than 6 months duration) in cool, moist environments, especially water sources.

How Cryptosporidiosis is Diagnosed


Cryptosporidium is detected in the conjunctiva, sinus, trachea, lungs, kidneys, small and large intestine, cloaca, and bursa of Fabricius in chickens.

Clinical Signs

Diarrhea
Paleness
Weight loss
Ruffled feathers
Sneezing
Nasal and eye discharge
Swollen sinuses
Difficulty breathing
Coughing
Extending neck
Reluctance to move
Increased respiratory sounds (rales)
Undigested food in droppings
Depression

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical Signs
  • Physical exam
  • Lab Tests

Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Visceral gout and Cryptosporidiosis in a Commercial laying hens Formalin-fixed kidney tissues from adult egg-laying chickens in two houses of an egg-production complex in the upper Midwest were submitted to Iowa State University for histopathologic examination. An increased incidence of visceral gout, average daily mortality 1%-2% higher than expected, and egg production within normal limits were observed in both houses. Numerous developing stages of Cryptosporidium were observed on the apical surface of epithelial cells lining renal collecting tubules and ureters. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize colonization of cryptosporidia, disruption of microvilli, and exfoliation of parasitized epithelial cells. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the wall of ureters and hyperplasia of parasitized epithelial cells resulted in partial obstruction of ureters, which may have induced visceral gout in affected hens. Ref

  • Case 2: Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in a Chickens In a retrospective examination of histopathology reports from Aug. 1, 1985, through Sept. 31, 1987, 10 cases of small- or large-intestinal cryptosporidiosis (not epithelial cryptosporidiosis of the bursa of Fabricius) were found in chickens. Infection was evenly distributed among young chickens. Incidence of intestinal cryptosporidiosis increased during 1987. Although all infected birds were clinically ill, signs or gross lesions of intestinal disease were not always present. In all cases, mild to marked histologic lesions were associated with Cryptosporidium sp.; however, intestinal tracts were not cultured for other infectious agents. The numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. and character of inflammatory response were not significantly correlated. A difference (P = 0.01) among intestinal segment (small vs. large) infection with Cryptosporidium sp was seen. Light-microscopic appearance and organ distribution of Cryptosporidium sp suggest that in addition to C. baileyi, other Cryptosporidium sp infect chickens. Until the diagnostic procedure for outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease in poultry routinely includes histopathology, fecal flotation, and virus, bacteria, and chlamydia cultures, and until species of Cryptosporidium are isolated, identified, reported, and investigated experimentally, the importance of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in chickens will remain unknown. Ref

  • Case 3: Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in a Turkey poults Naturally occurring cryptosporidiosis is reported in turkey poults suffering from diarrhoea and unthriftness in Iran. Histological and ultrastructural studies revealed high number of Cryptosporidium developmental stages mainly located in the mid and terminal portions of small intestine of the poults. Other portions of the intestinal tract were less frequently infected. Oocyst shedding was detected only in 29% of the histologically positive birds. Based on host species, clinical signs, pathology and tissue location of the parasites, Cryptosporidium meleagridis was most likely responsible for these infections. Ref

Treatment

NameSummary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own chicken "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Paramomycin100 mg/kg administered orally every 12 hoursK Marx

Support

Prevention

  • Good sanitary practices
  • Place water sources higher up to help prevent feces from contaminating the water source.
  • Prevent birds flying overhead from contaminating water sources with their feces.
  • Prevent exposure to wild birds.

Scientific References

Blogs

Risk Factors

  • Keeping birds in a dirty, unsanitary environment.
  • Ingestion of untreated or fecal contaminated drinking water.
  • Wild or pet exotic birds on the premises.
  • Letting chickens drink from rivers.