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Other Names: Arizona Infection, Avian Arizonosis

Arizonosis is a septicemic disease of primarily young chicks caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae (S. arizonae). The disease can be acute or chronic and occurs worldwide, wherever flocks are raised.

S. arizonae has the ability to elaborate endotoxins, resulting in inflammation in multiple organs most notably in the yolk sac, brain, eye, ceca, and bloodstream of young birds.


S. arizonae is an egg-transmitted disease, meaning infected adult breeding birds are usually carriers which spread the bacteria to their young through their eggs. Rodents, wild birds, and reptiles can also transmit S. arizonae into the environment.

Clinical Signs

Loss of appetite
Leg paralysis
Twisted necks


  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • Physical exam
  • Bacterial culture

Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Otitis interna in a Turkeys Otitis interna was diagnosed in five 9-to-21-day-old turkey poults with clinical signs of paralysis, opisthotonus, torticollis, blindness, and increased mortality. Gross and microscopic lesions in the poults included omphalitis, typhlitis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmitis, neuritis and ganglionitis of the vestibulocochlear nerve, and otitis interna. Salmonella enterica arizonae was isolated from the brains, eyes, intestines, yolk sacs, and livers of poults. Birds with otitis interna also had meningoencephalitis. It is most likely that the S. enterica arizonae infection spread from the brain to the internal ears through the vestibulocochlear nerve. Ref


Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own chicken "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
Probiotics and prebioticsAdded to dietH Al-Khalaifa et al., 2019; A Wolfenden et al., 2007
Thyme (Thymus vulgari) extract5 mg dried extract/mL (0.5% TVAE),V Elmi et al., 2020
Tumeric (Curcuma longa)0.1% in the feedD Hernandez-Patlan et al., 2019; K Varmuzova et al., 2015
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)0.5% of dietK Divua et al., 2015
Fermenting feedHelps chickens become less susceptible to Salmonella infection.L Heres et al., 2003



  • Ferment feed
  • Probiotics
  • Biosecurity
  • Minimize contact with wild birds, rodents and especially reptiles.

Scientific References

Age Range

It most often affects young chicks.

Risk Factors

  • Stress
  • Contact with reptiles, rodents and/or wild birds.