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Vent pecking is an abnormal, habit-forming behavior where hens will target another hen's vent to peck at, causing damage to the surrounding skin and underlying tissue. It can be fatal to the hen under attack, unless there is quick intervention. Since birds are attracted to pecking at the color red, a bird who has existing damage to her vent which causes it to bleed, or has a prolapse where red tissues are exposed, is at risk of vent pecking.
Intervention: Remove the bird under attack from the flock and assess wounds/damage. Depending on the severity, you may need to bring the bird to the veterinarian. Treat wounds accordingly and do not place back in with the others until her vent has fully healed.