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Fowl Typhoid

Fowl typhoid (FT) is one of several diseases caused by infection with Salmonella in chickens, specifically Salmonella Gallinarum. The disease usually occurs in flocks rapidly, where it runs it's course within a week, but sometimes presents in chronic form where birds may take up to 5 weeks to recover.

FT has a similar presentation and diagnosis to Pullorum disease, except FT is more likely to occur in adult chickens, 12 weeks of age or older.

Transmission


S. gallinarum is most commonly transmitted to chickens vertically through carrier breeders to chicks through hatching eggs. It can also be spread by fomites, rodents, contaminated droppings, flies and wild birds.

Clinical Signs

Sudden death
Loss of appetite
Ruffled feathers
Pale comb/wattles
Sticky (yellow-green) diarrhea
Increased thirst
Droopiness

Diagnosis

  • History
  • Clinical signs
  • PCR assay
  • Bacterial culture
  • Necropsy

Treatment

NameSummary
Supportive careIsolate the bird from the flock and place in a safe, comfortable, warm location (your own chicken "intensive care unit") with easy access to water and food. Limit stress. Call your veterinarian.
AntibioticsSulfaquinoxaline

Support

Prevention

  • Vaccination - Live and inactivated vaccines are available in some countries.
  • Biosecurity
  • Maintain proper sanitary conditions

Scientific References

Good Overviews

Age Range

Usually occurs in growing birds 12 weeks old or older.

Risk Factors

  • High rodent populations on premises
  • Poor sanitary practices
  • Letting chickens have access to ponds or other large water sources that could be contaminated by wild bird feces.

Also Consider