Fowl typhoid (FT) is an infectious, acute or chronic septicaemic disease, caused by Salmonella gallinarum
. FT has a similar presentation and diagnosis to Pullorum disease
, although adult chickens can show clinical signs of disease. FT affects chickens and turkey flocks worldwide, however in the United States, outbreaks in commercial poultry with FT have not occurred since 1980.
Clinical signs differ depending on the severity of the infection. Infected chickens often will die 5-10 days following when they first develop clinical signs.
is most commonly transmitted to chickens through contact with infected birds, or vertical transmission from hens to chicks through the egg. Infected birds can also contaminate the environment, feed, water and bedding through discharge of the bacteria within their feces which remains active in the environment for 6 months or longer. It is however, sensitive to disinfectants and sunlight. Fomites and personnel can spread the bacteria without proper biosecurity procedures.