Clinical Signs



Reported Cases

  • Case 1: Acorn toxicosis in a Duck An adult male, white duck presented as an emergency to the Zoo, Exotic and Wildlife Medicine Service of the Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University. The patient was reported to have a 7-day history of progressive inappetence, lethargy, and isolation from its flock. The patient was part of a mixed-species waterfowl flock residing on a public pond. The pond was routinely maintained, and the ducks were fed a commercial seed mixture three times weekly. Additionally, the ducks forage, eating a variety of plant materials and foliage as well as foods provided by visitors to the pond. The ducks had regular human contact and were reasonably social. Located in a public park, the pond was surrounded by oak trees (Quercus spp), cypress trees (Cypressus spp), grass, concrete walkways, and rocky substrate. The grounds crew had noticed the duck had not been feeding or socializing normally and had decreased buoyancy. The grounds crew caught the duck and brought it to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for care. On presentation, the duck was markedly weak, lethargic, and easily stressed by physical restraint. A cursory physical examination most notably revealed the crop to be markedly distended and firm. With handling, the duck regurgitated rancid seeds and plant materials. The duck was water-soaked through to its down feathers, indicating a lack of waterproofing, which surely contributed to decreased buoyancy and suspected hypothermia. The duck was emaciated (body condition score: 1/5; body weight: 1.7 kg), suggesting a chronic condition. The duck appeared to be in shock (i.e., pale, mildly cyanotic mucous membranes; a slow capillary refill time) and was estimated to be 10% dehydrated (e.g., tacky mucous membranes). Ref

  • Case 2: Duck viral enteritis in a Muscovy ducks Duck viral enteritis (DVE) was the cause of severe lethargy, recumbency and death in six backyard Muscovy ducks that became acutely sick and died within 2-3 days of onset of signs. All three ducks submitted had lesions compatible with DVE including hemorrhagic enteritis, multifocal hepatic necrosis and ulcerative esophagitis, with herpesvirus inclusions in hepatocytes and esophageal epithelial cells. The disease did not affect one Ancona duck and chickens cohabiting the premise. In addition, Salmonella group B contributed to the hepatitis and was isolated from an intestinal pool. Ref

  • Case 3: Angel wing in a Northern goshawk A 4-week-old female Northern goshawk presented with a valgus deformity of both wings resulting in dorsolateral rotation of the primary flight feathers. The condition resolved in 2 weeks after the wings were bandaged and physical therapy was performed. Ref


Scientific References

    Age Range

    Risk Factors