Tracks

Wolf tracks are generally so large, that they could only be confused with the largest breed of dog. Wolves tend to travel in very efficient, fairly straight paths and their tracks found in rather remote wilderness areas.

Droppings/Scant

Wolf feces is often large, ropey and tapered on one or both ends. These more typical feces are often composed of fur, bones, hide and meat. A feces made of all meat and internal organs can be rather amorphous in shape. Wolf feces can vary widely in length, from 6-17” long. In diameter, it tends to be between 1/2” to 1 7/8” wide.
Gray wolf map

Kills similar to:

The Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus) has over 32 subspecies that are found worldwide and range from across Europe to northern Asia, however most are located in North America. Gray wolves prefer to live in areas with a variety of topographic features such as forests, open meadows, lakes and rivers, and rocky ridges.

Wolves have occasionally been known to prey on free-range poultry. They will typically kill birds with a single bit over the back, leaving large canine tooth holes in the carcass. Multiple birds--if not all are likely to be killed. One wolf is capable of killing 50 to 100 birds in a single night. They will often return every few nights to prey on the flock again.

Exclusion

Fencing : Well maintained woven wire fencing that is at least 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 m) high. Electrically charged wires installed along the bottom and top of woven-wire fences.

Frightening

  • Guard dogs : Purchase livestock guard dogs
  • Loud noises : Strobe light/siren devices may work for a couple months

References

  1. Snyder, S. A. 1991. Canis lupus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/calu/all.html [2016, July 27].
  2. Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. Editors, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Robert M. Timm, Gary E. Larson. 1994. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 2 vols.
  3. Alderleaf Wilderness College,. (2014). Wolf Tracks and Sign. Retrieved 18 December 2014, from http://www.wildernesscollege.com/wolf-tracks.html
  4. Defenders.org,. (2014). Basic Facts About Gray Wolves. Retrieved 18 December 2014, from http://www.defenders.org/gray-wolf/basic-facts
  5. Extension.org,. (2014). Wolves - eXtension. Retrieved 18 December 2014, from http://www.extension.org/pages/11215/wolves
  6. National Geographic,. (2014). Wolves, Wolf Pictures, Wolf Facts - National Geographic. Retrieved 18 December 2014, from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/wolf/?source=A-to-Z