Tracks

5 toes on each foot. Their large toe is on the outside of the foot and the small inner toe does not always register. Footpads are bigger at the outer edges. Front tracks are wider than rear tracks.

Droppings/Scant

Tubular in the form of logs or piles.
Bear map

The Bear

There are eight different species of bears that are found throughout North America, South America, Europe, and Asia:
  • American black bear (Ursus americanus): Includes the California black bear, Cinnamon bear, Mexican black bear, Louisiana black bear, Florida black bear, Glacier bear, Eastern black bear, Olympic black bear, Haida Gwaii black bear, Spirit bear, Kenai black bear, Vancouver island black bear, Dall black bear, and the Newfoundland black bear.
  • Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus)
  • Brown bear (Ursus arctos): Includes the Grizzly bear, Atlas bear, Gobi bear, Far Easrtern bear, Eurasian brown bear, Kodiak bear, Tibetan blue bear, California golden bear, and the Syrian bear.
  • Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)
  • Polar bear (Ursus maritimus)
  • Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus)
  • Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus)
  • Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)
Bears are usually solitary mammals that are diurnal, but are often most active at night or twilight near residential areas. Bears have an excellent sense of smell, are very fast, and are also great climbers and swimmers. They use caves and burrows for shelter, where they will often sleep for long periods of hibernation during the winter months.

Most problems with bears occur during the spring, summer, and late fall months. It is between these times when natural food sources are decreased and not as nutritious, causing bears to search elsewhere for food. Between June and August is breeding season for bears, and when male bears often roam in search of a mate.

How to Prevent Bear Attacks

Fence Material : Heavy, chain link or woven wire

Fence Height : at least 8 ft (2.4 m) high

Prevent digging : Bury fencing 2 ft (0.6 m) below ground.

Prevent climbing : Install metal bar extensions at an outward angle to the top of the fence and attach barbed wire or electrified smooth wire. Also consider attaching an electrified outrigger wire to the fence.

Electrified : Minimum of 12 gauge, high tensile fencing, nine wires high, spaced 6 in (15 cm) at the top and 4 in (10 cm) at the bottom, with alternating hot and ground wires. Both the top and bottom wires should be hot. Use a low-impedance charger with a minimum output of 5,000 volts.

Remove bear attractions : Garbage cans, beehives, fruit and nut-bearing trees and shrubs, animal feed, compost piles, uncovered and/or dirty barbecue grills and smokers, and wildlife feeders.

Offset sense of smell : Keep a cup of ammonia at the bottom of or near any garbage cans.

Frightening

  • Load noises : Barking dogs trained to bark on sight or smell of a bear, recordings of helicopter chases, roaring engines, cracker shells, boat horns

References

  1. Snyder, S. A. 1991. Ursus arctos horribilis. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/urach/all.html [2016, July 27].
  2. Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. Editors, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Robert M. Timm, Gary E. Larson. 1994. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 2 vols.
  3. Dnr.state.mn.us,. (2014). Living with wildlife - bears: Minnesota DNR. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/livingwith_wildlife/bears/index.html
  4. Extension.org,. (2014). Grizzly and Brown Bears - eXtension. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from http://www.extension.org/pages/8606/grizzly-and-brown-bears
  5. Geology.com,. (2014). Map of where bears live in North America?. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from Ulev, Elena. 2007. Ursus americanus. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/uram/all.html [2016, July 27].
  6. http://geology.com/stories/13/bear-areas/
  7. National Geographic,. (2014). Black Bears, Black Bear Pictures, Black Bear Facts - National Geographic. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/black-bear/?source=A-to-Z
  8. Pubs.ext.vt.edu,. (2014). Managing Wildlife Damage: Black Bears (Ursus americanus). Publications and Educational Resources. Virginia Tech. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/420/420-200/420-200.html
  9. Wdfw.wa.gov,. (2014). Black Bears - Living with Wildlife. Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife. Retrieved 16 December 2014, from http://wdfw.wa.gov/living/bears.html
  10. http://www.bear.org/website/bear-pages/black-bear/black-bear-sign/51-bear-tracks-and-trails.html