Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes the disease ornithobacteriosis in poultry. It is found worldwide in commercial poultry and wild birds.

O. rhinotracheale primarily affects the respiratory tract, presenting as bacterial airsacculitis and pneumonia. It can also infect the joints and the brain, where affected birds develop arthritis, osteitis, and meningitis.

How Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is Transmitted: O. rhinotracheale is spread horizontally by aerosol or fecal-oral route, as well as vertically through eggs.

O. rhinotracheale infections can sometimes be difficult to treat, and testing for antibiotic susceptibility is essential.


  • Order: Flavobacteriales
  • Family: Flavobacteriaceae
  • Genus: Ornithobacterium


  • turkeys
  • chickens
  • wild birds