is a spore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium. Infection can occur through contamination of wounds with dirt or any foreign material contaminated with C. perfringens.
Drug Susceptibility: Clostridium are susceptible to many antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, clindamycin, metronidazole, rifapine, and tetracyclines.
Susceptibility to disinfectants: Spores are resistant to most disinfectants and, when susceptible, they require longer contact time. Clostridium spores are resistant to ethyl and propyl alcohols, chlorine dioxide. Spores of clostridium species can be killed by high level disinfectants such as 2% aqueous glutaraldehyde within 3 hours, and 8% formaldehyde.
Physical inactivation: Spores are highly resistant to both heat, and gamma-irradiation. Enterotoxin is heat labile and can be inactivated by heat treatment at 60 degrees Celsius for 5 minutes.
Survival in the environment: Spores can survive in soil, crevices, food, decaying vegetation, marine sediments, internal cavities and in the anaerobic conditions inside animal carcasses.