Ketoconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent used in the prevention and treatment of a variety of fungal infections. It has broad spectrum activity and good absorption. However, it can have negative side effects. There are safer antifungal agents available which are preferred for treating candidiasis.
- Ketoconazole requires an acidic environment to become soluble in water. At pH less than 3 dissolution is 85% complete in 5 min and entirely complete within 30 min. Add 1/2 tsp vinegar to water solution.
- Ketoconazole absorption is enhanced in an acidic environment and should not be administered with H2 blockers or antacids.
- Ketoconazole has endocrine effects, and can be toxic if given to stressed birds.
- Ketoconazole produces frequent gastrointestinal side effects.
- Overdose can cause acute liver injury. In case of overdose, activated charcoal may be used if within one hour of ketoconazole ingestion otherwise provide supportive care.