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Septicemia, also known as blood poisoning, occurs when an infection has invaded the chicken's bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the infection quickly spreads throughout the body. It is a serious, life-threatening condition which is associated with acute onset of very generalized clinical signs of sickness, such as listlessness, depression, weakness, loss of appetite, and sudden death. The most common pathogens known for causing septicemia in chickens include: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp and Pasteurella spp.
Septicemia occurs often in chickens that are survivors of an attack from a predator, especially from domestic dogs and cats. These chickens may not even show any external signs of significant damage; however the oral cavity of animals, especially cats and dogs, contain a great deal of bacteria, with one of the most important being Pasteurella spp. Prompt treatment with the appropriate antibiotics is needed to prevent a fatal outcome in affected birds.