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Organophosphate poisoning results from poultry exposure to organophosphates (OPs). Organophosphorus and carbamate compounds are used throughout the world as insecticides, herbicides, nematocides, acaricides, fungicides, rodenticides, avicides, and bird repellants. OPs induce poisoning in mammals and avian species by irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity at the nerve terminals and neuromuscular junctions causing accumulation of acetylcholine.
The acute (24 h) oral median lethal doses (LD50) of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and dichlorvos in chicks are 10.79 mg/kg, 6.32 mg/kg, and 6.30 mg/kg, respectively. Colored breeds of chicken are more more susceptible than white breeds to coumaphos, and naphthaphos has a narrow safety range for chickens.