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Dactylariosis, previously referred to as ochroconiasis, is a rare fungal disease affecting chickens and turkeys. It is caused by infection with Dactylaria gallopava (also referred to as Ochroconis gallopava), a neurotropic dematiaceous mold. It grows best during hot and humid weather and is more common in tropical or subtropical climates. D. gallopava affects the chicken's respiratory and central nervous system (CNS).
Occurrence of this disease is often associated with contaminated litter made from wood products (wood chips and sawdust) and mold growth in egg incubators. D. gallopava grows well in acidic environments with moderately high temperatures. Cases will reoccur if fungi growth develops in incubators or in the environment of where chickens are kept. Chickens become infected by inhaling the spores from the mold source.